Technical Glossary

What does ABCS stand for? What is a Zener diode? These and other questions will be answered here. Make our glossary your single point of contact whenever you need expertise in lighting and semiconductor technology.

A

A/D signal/converter

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A/D signal/converter

Analogue to digital converter (ADC). Converts analogue input signals into digital data or a data stream, which can then processed further or stored.

ABCS

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ABCS (Antimonide-Based Compound Semiconductors)

ABCS is a new class of compound semiconductors with superior electronic properties and lower turn-on voltages compared to those offered by semiconductors based on Silicon, Gallium Arsenide and Indium Phosphide. ABCS are expected to produce world''s fastest circuits with lowest consumed power, in defense and space applications. ABCS technology has commercial applications too, particularly in high frequency wireless applications, light wave communication and integrated optoelectronic circuits.

Absorption

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Absorption

Losses in an optical fiber caused by the presence of some impurities - iron, copper, cobalt, vanadium, and chromium. For optical fibers, even one or two parts per billion of these impurities are considered unacceptable.

Acceptance Pattern

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Acceptance Pattern

Curve of total transmitted light plotted against the incident angle.

Acceptor Impurity

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Acceptor Impurity (Aka p-type impurity)

An atom or ion different from, but present in a semiconductor, and which has insufficient valance electrons to complete the normal bonding arrangement in the semiconductor crystal structure. An acceptor impurity accepts an electron from an adjacent atom to create a positive charge carrier (i.e. a hole).

Active Matrix Display

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Active Matrix Display

A type of flat-panel display in which the screen is refreshed more frequently than in conventional passive-matrix displays. The most common type of active-matrix display is based on a technology known as TFT (Thin Film Transistor). The two terms, active matrix and TFT, are often used interchangeably.

Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCDs)

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Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCDs)

These are active matrix displays composed of a rear glass substrate patterned with thin-film transistors (TFTs), a front glass substrate with color filters and a Liquid Crystal (LC) material filling the middle between the glass "sandwich". The array of thin-film transistors on the rear substrate is attached to electronic drivers that receive impulses from a computer chip attached to the host system. Each TFT acts as an on/off switch to activate a pixel, force the liquid crystal to twist, and allow light to pass through and form images on the display.

AEL (Accessible Emission Limits)

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AEL (Accessible Emission Limits)

The maximum accessible emission limits for each Laser Classification (Standard IEC-60825-1) are a function of wavelength and emission duration which are listed in specific tables.

AFS (Advanced Frontlighting System)

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AFS (Advanced Frontlighting System)

AFS directs the headlight output of a car in such a way, that the beam pattern is optimized for different driving conditions. For example the speed and direction of the vehicle is used to enhance the drivers night vision.

AGC (Automatic Gain Control)

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AGC (Automatic Gain Control)

The AGC automatically adjusts the gain of an amplifier in order to maintain a constant output from a varying input signal, if the incoming signal is weak the AGC raises it, if it is strong it will be reduced. An AGC helps avoid over driving the amplifier input and improves the signal to noise ratio. AGCs can often be found in audio applications to regulate volume.

ALCVD

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ALCVD

Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition

ALE

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ALE

Atomic Layer Epitaxy, growth of a crystal in increments of a single atomic layer.

AlGaAs

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AlGaAs

Aluminum Gallium Arsenic

AllnGaP

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AllnGaP

Aluminum Indium Gallium Phosphor

AllnGaP chip (LED)

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AllnGaP chip (LED)

Aluminium- Indium- Gallium- Phosphide based
chip / LED.

Alphanumeric Display

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Alphanumeric Display

Readout of numbers and letters.

Alternating Current (AC)

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Alternating Current (AC)

Electric current that reverses direction periodically, usually many times per second.

Ammeter

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Ammeter

An instrument used for measuring the electrical current flow in a portion of a circuit.

Amorphous

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Amorphous

Materials that possess no obvious arrangement of atoms for example, plastics as well as silicon, prior to being refined for processing.

Analog Display

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Analog Display

Readout that provides a continuous, illuminated movement along a predetermined calibrated path to provide an indication of a desired measurement.

Analog Meter

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Analog Meter

Readout that provides a continuous numbered scale along which a pointer moves.

Anode

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Anode

A positive electrode of an electrolytic cell where positively charged ions leave when a current is passed in electroplating baths.

ANPR (Automatic Number Plate Recognition)

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ANPR (Automatic Number Plate Recognition)

ANPR is a surveillance method used to read the license (number) plates vehicles. Applications include electronic toll collection on pay-per-use roads and monitoring traffic activity. Infrared LEDs are ideally suited to this application.

ARC (Anti Reflection Coating)

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ARC (Anti Reflection Coating)

A type of optical coating which reduces reflection. This coating can be used to enhance the luminous intensity of LEDs and Lasers.

Arsenic

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Arsenic

A group V element that is an n-type dopant in silicon.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

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ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

A character encoding scheme based on the ordering of the English alphabet. It represents text in computers and other communication equipment. ASCII defines 128 characters.

ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)

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ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)

An integrated circuit (IC) customized for only one special purpose use.
(Modern ASICs are often based on 32-bit  microprocessors with memory blocks including ROM, RAM, EEPROM , Flash and other electronic components.)

ASP

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ASP

Average Selling Price

Atomic Orbital

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Atomic Orbital

The region in space around the nucleus of an atom in which an electron with a given set of quantum numbers is most likely to be found.

AV-input

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AV-input

AV (Audio-Video) input is a common connector to receive audio and video signals from electronic devices like DVD-Players, TV-Tuner or VHS-Videorecoders.

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